心理发展与教育 ›› 2006, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (1): 47-51.

• 认知与社会性发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

大学生对艾滋病的乐观偏差

王炜, 刘力, 周佶, 周宁   

  1. 北京师范大学心理学院, 北京, 100875
  • 出版日期:2006-01-15 发布日期:2006-01-15
  • 通讯作者: 刘力,男,北京师范大学心理学院副教授,博士;E-mail: E-mail:l.liu@bnu.edu.cn

Optimistic Bias toward AIDS/HIV Among Chinese University Students

WANG Wei, LIU Li, ZHOU Ji, ZHOU Ning   

  1. School of Psychology, Beijing Normal University 100875
  • Online:2006-01-15 Published:2006-01-15

摘要: 研究采用问卷法,以北京6所高校的278名被试为样本,考察了大学生对艾滋病的乐观偏差。结果表明,被试对艾滋病的感染和治愈存在着双重乐观偏差;艾滋病知识掌握程度既与感染艾滋病的乐观偏差无显著相关,也与治愈艾滋病的乐观偏差无显著相关。

关键词: 艾滋病, 乐观偏差, 艾滋病知识, 大学生

Abstract: This study explores the optimistic biases toward HIV/AIDS among Chinese University students.The data were collected by the method of questionnaire;278 students from six universities in Beijing completed the questionnaires.The data analysis shows that the participants demonstrate both strong optimistic biases about the personal risk of HIV/AIDS infection,and about the personal possibility of recovery from the disease in case of infected.Also,no statistically significant correlations were found between participants' knowledge about HIV/AIDS and their optimistic biases towards contracting HIV,and between their knowledge and their optimistic bias towards recovery from AIDS in case of infected.

Key words: optimistic bias, AIDS/HIV, AIDS/HIV knowledge, Chinese university students

中图分类号: 

  • B844.2
[1] World Health Organization.Global situation of the HIV/AIDS epidemic,end 2004.Weeklly epidemiological record,2004,79 (50):441-449.
[2] 国务院防治艾滋病工作委员会办公室和联合国艾滋病中国专题组.中国艾滋病防治联合评估报告.http://www.unchina.org/unaids/JARChinese04.pdf,2005/05/16.
[3] 郑煜煌,孙振球,杨旭,邹文,刘卫.湖南高校学生性观念和艾滋病知识的调查.湖南医科大学学报(社会科学版),2002.4(1):37-41.
[4] 叶利贞.大学生艾滋病知识、态度、行为调查分析及健康教育对策.中国健康教育,2004,20(2):133.
[5] 李爱兰,刘肇瑞,张桂芝,黄涛,黄悦勤.北京市五所高校大学生对艾滋病/性病需求的定性研究.中国性病艾滋病防治,2000,2(6):104-107.
[6] Tversky A.Kahneman D.Judgement under uncertainty:Heuristics and biases.Science,1974,185,1124-1130.
[7] Kahnemann D,Tversky A.On the psychology of prediction.In D.Kahneman,P.Slovic & A.Tversky (eds.).Judgement under uncertainty:Heuristics and biases.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1982:48-68.
[8] Weinstein N D.Optimistic biases about personal risks.Science,1989,246,1232-1233.
[9] Weinstein N D.Unrealistic optimism about future life events.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,1980,39 (5):806-820.
[10] Weinstein N D,Klein W M.Unrealistic optimism:Present and future.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology,1996,15 (1):1-8.
[11] Taylor S,Brown J.The "illusion" of mental health does not explain positive illusions.American Psychologist,1994,49 (11):972-973.
[12] Weinstein N D.Unrealistic optimism about susceptibility to health problems:Conclusions from a community-wide sample.Journal of Behavioral Medicine,1987,10 (5):481-500.
[13] Weinstein N D,Lyon J.Mindset,optimistic bias about personal risk and health-protective behavior.British Journal of Health Psychology,1999,4 (4),289-300.
[14] Williams T,Clarke V.Optimistic bias in beliefs about smoking.Australian Journal of Psychology,1997,49 (2):106-112.
[15] Eldridge G,Lawrence J,Little C,Shelby M,Brasfield T.Barriers to condom use and barrier method preferences among low-income African-American women,Women and Health,1995,23 (1):73-89.
[16] Smith G,Gerrard M,Gibbons F.Self-esteem and the relation between risk behavior and perceptions of vulnerability to unplanned pregnancy in college women.Health Psychology,1997,16 (2):137-146.
[17] Chapin J.Optimistic bias regarding campus violence.Current Research in Social Psychology,2001,6 (1):1-11.
[18] Weinstein N D,Lyon J,Rothman A,& Cuite C.Changes in perceived vulnerability following natural disaster.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology,2000,19 (3):372-396.
[19] Gold R S,Aucote H M.‘I'm less at risk than most guys':Gay men's unrealistic optimism about becoming infected with HIV.International Journal of STD & AIDS,2003,14 (1):18-24.
[20] Gold R S.Explaining gay men's unrealistic optimism about becoming infected with HIV.International Journal of STD & AIDS,2004,15(2):99-103.
[21] Whaley A L.Differential risk perceptions for unintended pregnancy,STDs,and HIV/AIDS among urban adolescents:Some preliminary findings.Journal of Genetic Psychology,2000,161 (4):435-452.
[22] Goodwin R,Kozlova A,Kwiatkowska A,et al.Social representations of HIV/AIDS in central and eastern Europe.Social Science and Medicine,2003,56 (7):1373-1384.
[23] Gouveia S O,Clarke V.Optimistic bias for negative and positive events.Health Education,2001,101(5):228-235.
[24] Chang E C,Asakawa K,Sanna L J.Cultural variations in optimistic and pessimistic bias:Do Easterners really expect the worst and Westerners really expect the best when predicting future life events? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,2001,81 (3):476-491.
[25] Ferguson E,Frankis J.Sex and sexual orientation:The effect of group membership on individuals' judgments about self and others' HIV risk.Journal of Homosexuality.2001,41 (2):119-143.
[26] Shrauger J S,Mariano E,Walter T J.Depressive Symptoms and Accuracy in the Prediction of Future Events.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,1998,24 (8):880-892.
[27] 黄金,王红红,Williams A B.大学生艾滋病知识、态度的现状调查及其相关性分析.实用预防医学.2003,10(4):457-460.
[28] Li X M,Lin C D,Gao Z X,Stanton B,Fang X Y,Yin Q,Wu Y.HIV/AIDS knowledge and the implications for health promotion programs among Chinese college students:geographic,gender and age differences.Health Promotion International,2004,9 (3):345-356.
[29] Goffman E.Stigma:Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity.New York,NY:Simon & Schuster,1963:11-31.
[30] Mason T,Carlisle C,Watkins C,et al.Stigma and Social Exclusion in Healthcare.London:Routledge,2001.
[31] Stahly G B."Psychosocial aspects of the stigma of cancer:An overview." Journal of Psychosocial Oncology,1988,6 (1):3-27.
[32] Donovan T.The stigma of terminal cancer.In Mason T,Carlisle C,Watkins C,& Whitehead (Eds).Stigma and Social Exclusion in Healthcare.London:Routledge,2001:246-254.
[33] Herek G M.AIDS and stigma.American Behavioral Scientist,1999,42 (7):1102-1112.
[34] Carlisle C.HIV and AIDS.In Mason,T.,Carlisle,C.Watkins,C.and Whitehead (Eds).Stigma and Social Exclusion in Healthcare.London:Routledge,2001:117-125.
[35] Neumann R,Hulsenbeck K,Seibt B.Attitudes towards people with AIDS and avoidance behavior:Automatic and reflective bases of behavior.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,2004,40 (4):543-550.
[36] Fife B L,Wright E R.The dimensionality of stigma:A comparison of its impact on the self of persons with HIV/AIDS and cancer.Journal of Health and Social.Behavior,2000,41(1):50-67.
[37] Helweg-Larsen M,Collins B E.A social psychological perspective on the role of knowledge about AIDS in AIDS prevention.Current Directions in Psychological Science,1997,6 (1):23-26.
[38] Svenson L,Carmel S Varnhagen,C.A review of the knowledge,attitudes and behaviors of university students concerning HIV/AIDS.Health Promotion International,1997,12 (1):61-68
[1] 高斌, 朱穗京, 吴晶玲. 大学生手机成瘾与学习投入的关系:自我控制的中介作用和核心自我评价的调节作用[J]. 心理发展与教育, 2021, 37(3): 400-406.
[2] 杨秀娟, 范翠英, 周宗奎, 刘庆奇, 连帅磊. 正念与手机成瘾倾向的关系:无聊倾向和未来时间洞察力的作用[J]. 心理发展与教育, 2021, 37(3): 419-428.
[3] 郑显亮, 谢方威, 丁亮, 王雪. 社会阶层与大学生网络利他行为:一个有调节的中介模型[J]. 心理发展与教育, 2021, 37(2): 182-189.
[4] 刘勤学, 张聚媛, 林悦. 大学生智能手机成瘾与抑制控制能力的关系:手机位置和认知负荷的调节作用[J]. 心理发展与教育, 2021, 37(2): 257-265.
[5] 杨文敏, 鲁嘉晨, 谭欣, 梁静远, 雷怡. 大学生主观童年创伤症状对抑郁的影响:抗挫折能力和外向性的多重中介效应[J]. 心理发展与教育, 2021, 37(1): 128-136.
[6] 刘艳, 陈建文. 大学生自尊与社会适应的关系:积极核心图式与同伴依恋的链式中介效应分析[J]. 心理发展与教育, 2020, 36(6): 694-699.
[7] 田录梅, 潘月, 董鑫月, 孔莲. 不同社交网站使用与大学生抑郁的关系:链式中介模型[J]. 心理发展与教育, 2020, 36(6): 743-752.
[8] 林文毅, 杨怡, 余圣陶. 知识验证信念对于多文本阅读理解的影响机制:阅读策略的中介效应和主题知识的调节效应[J]. 心理发展与教育, 2020, 36(6): 708-714.
[9] 邱娟, 江黛苔, 段亚杰, 姚驹, 范春艳, 刘伟. 大学生网络捐助的影响因素:求助者特征的视角[J]. 心理发展与教育, 2020, 36(5): 569-575.
[10] 张荣伟, 柯少菁, 连榕, 李丹. 人际交往能力与生命意义的关系:孤独感和年级的作用[J]. 心理发展与教育, 2020, 36(5): 576-583.
[11] 金童林, 乌云特娜, 张璐, 杨雪, 贾彦茹, 杨宏. 社会逆境感知对大学生攻击行为的影响:反刍思维与领悟社会支持的作用[J]. 心理发展与教育, 2020, 36(4): 414-421.
[12] 吴漾, 武俐, 牛更枫, 陈真珍, 刘丽中. 微信朋友圈使用对大学生抑郁的影响:负面社会比较和自我概念清晰性的作用[J]. 心理发展与教育, 2020, 36(4): 486-493.
[13] 何安明, 包灿灿, 惠秋平. 大学生情绪智力与心理健康的关系:社会支持的中介作用和手机依赖的调节作用[J]. 心理发展与教育, 2020, 36(4): 494-501.
[14] 丁子恩, 刘勤学. 大学生网络交往与网络利他行为的关系:自尊与公我意识的作用[J]. 心理发展与教育, 2020, 36(2): 175-183.
[15] 丁倩, 张永欣, 周宗奎. 相对剥夺感与大学生网络过激行为:自我损耗的中介作用及性别差异[J]. 心理发展与教育, 2020, 36(2): 200-207.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
No Suggested Reading articles found!